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The expanding application of Concept Mapping includes its role in knowledge elicitation, institutional memory preservation, and ideation. With the advent of the CmapTools knowledge modeling software kit, Concept Mapping is being applied with increased frequency and success to address a variety of problems in the workplace.

Concept Mapping Research Papers

The problem of induction, therefore, is nothing new to qualitative researchers, who have developed a range of strategies to overcome or at least address it. Thus, when creating codebooks for qualitative analyses, in content analysis for example, researchers can be both inductive (allowing themes, patterns, and categories to emerge from the data) and deductive (relying on previous analytical categories, obtained from a theory of reference or even an interview guide), or both at the same time (especially in mixed research designs creswell, 2008). Knowledge, they assert, can be constructed on the basis of repeated observations, to the point where no observational statements conflict with the law or theory thereby derived, or up to an established saturation point.

One of these arguments is put forth by popper (1959). Ultimately, the data tell us if our hypotheses are consistent. Depending on its objectives with respect to empirical verification, qualitative research can be confirmatory or exploratory (guest et al.

However, one can also argue that finding a category is not merely induction, but also the process of abductive inference described by peirce. More specifically, induction is the form of reasoning based on empirical observation in the process of developing scientific laws and theories. Contemporarily, a sound perspective on this issue can be found in the work of authors linked to scientific realism and antirealism.

That is, we can legitimately allege that a theory is true or false based on singular observational statements. As such, the degree to which the method is not theory-free is underestimated. Thus, in principle, as a product of human intellect, any hypothesis can be true, even though it apparently makes no sense.

On the one hand we encounter definitions of phenomena as (brown, 1994), that is, something already given in nature that must be discovered by means of a scientific method (from the greek thing appearing to view). I think this position regarding the timing of the literature review and its role in research can lead researchers to overestimate issues of method and, consequently, create an imbalance regarding theoretical issues. So, theories (or general-universal statements) are proposed.

In the second place, when a theory is inductively constructed, one can assume that empirical data are able, in and of themselves, to frame or postulate the phenomenon investigated. To sum his critical against qualitative methods, toomela observes that the problem of induction occurs because qualitative study is not always guided by an explicit research question, on the assumption that beginning with such a question may compromise the emergence of a (substantive) theory, the kind of theory that is relevant to participantsand not only to the researcher. The same phenomenon can be legitimately explained in different ways, using distinct theories and theoretical models. Theory unmasked the uses and guises of theory in qualitative research. Currently, his research interests include philosophical grounds of qualitative research, and applied themes in organizational and work psychology.


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Concept Mapping. A concept map helps students organize and represent knowledge of a subject. Concept mapping links concepts and ideas together with words and phrases that explain the relationship.

Concept Mapping Research Papers

Theory Building in Qualitative Research: Reconsidering the ...
Volume 14, No. 1, Art. 25 – January 2013 . Theory Building in Qualitative Research: Reconsidering the Problem of Induction . Pedro F. Bendassolli. Abstract: The problem of induction refers to the difficulties involved in the process of justifying experience-based scientific conclusions.
Concept Mapping Research Papers The expanding application of Concept Mapping includes its role in knowledge elicitation, It also advocates the use of abductive reasoning (clark, 2008), and defends the importance of theoretical models in science (jaccard & jacoby, 2010). Researchers espousing other theoretical traditions can and do equally benefit from the qualitative perspective, provided they manage to justify its use my third suggestion is that qualitative researchers rethink the role of emergence or unexpected facts in qualitative research, By contrast, qualitative researchers contend that their work does not consist of proposing and testing hypotheses. Abduction as the type of inference that characterizes the development of a grounded theory. Abduction is precisely this process of creating a novel type of combination between features present in data as well as in extant theory (kelle, 2005). Moreover, quine (1951, 1975, However, an alternative to this traditional use of deduction is to create new forms of explanation or rules capable of fitting the surprise and shock caused by their data and of going beyond explanations available in the extant theory. Volume 14, No, Considering this point, i ask the following question how are researchers who do not align themselves with the central principles of symbolic interactionism, or other microsociological theories that form the basis of many qualitative methods.
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    This assertion will be discussed in the following section. In operational terms, i will denominate the coding and data categorizing process in qualitative research as the generic analytic cycle. The author notes that this occurs partly because what qualitative researchers study is not the external to the research world with the help of symbols as tools but rather the tool itselfthe world of symbols (. They may sustain parts of these theories, hypotheses, and questions, but not the theories as a whole, whose development depends on other factors (e. Although it is beyond the scope of this article to discuss toomelas arguments against qualitative research, it might be worth noting that recent literature on qualitative methods could bring forth deeper reflections on the ontological status of the phenomena they study.

    In the case of qualitative methods in particular, my hypothesis is that the dearth of more detailed debate on this issue represents not only a gap in the current scenario, dominated primarily by methodological discussions, but also a significant intellectual challenge to be overcome. Phenomena are directly determined by theory, and only indirectly confirmed by empirical evidence (apel, 2011 bogan & woodward, 1988 hacking, 1983 woodward, 1989). The meeting between theory and phenomenon can often occur in a casual, unpredictable, and unexpected manner, although always within a scientific and theoretical context. It calls into question the role of empirical evidence in the theory-building process. It is argued that qualitative methods inherit many of the tensions intrinsic to inductive reasoning, such as those between the demands of empiricism and of formal scientific explanation, suggesting the need to reconsider the role of theory in qualitative research.

    How have qualitative researchers dealt with this problem? Situating the problem of induction in the current debate some unsolved questions in general, the solutions proposed are not different from those employed in the inductivist tradition in the philosophy of science (chalmers, 1999 losee, 2001). In such cases, reality is equated with the description we give to it (toomela, 2011). There is therefore a psychological component in this knowledge-building process. This viewpoint is associated with the philosophy of logical positivism, which introduces a distinction between direct observation (which is not theory-laden), and theory, whose value depends on the justification allowed by empirical data. Regardless of the strategy used, the last procedure of qualitative analysis (third item in the above list) should allow researchers to develop a theory that is not a simple synthesis of observational statementsthat is, a description in a broad sense. Furthermore, when a hypothesis is falsified, it does not necessarily mean that the entire theory from which it was deduced should be discarded. A hypothesis results from an exercise of intellect, creative capacity, and consideration of context, since available knowledge offers us concepts, ideas, relationships, etc. Without resorting to metaphysics, how do we attest to the truth of universal laws, which establish necessary (non-accidental) connections between events, based on observations of singular cases only (quine, 1975, p. The presentation of these points concludes this article. However, a strong empiricist culture likely persists in our research activities, sustaining a certain theoretical allergy and conceptualizing theory and theories in an excessively restrictive sense.

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    For example, heat (2006) recommends that researchers develop an inductive sensitivity, through which they can arrive at an insightful identification of relevant literature (p. Abduction is precisely this process of creating a novel type of combination between features present in data as well as in extant theory (kelle, 2005). Popper (1959) diverges from naive inductivism, proposing a redefinition of the role of theory in science. In this sense, to explain the situation in which the theory-building process results from unexpected events or phenomena, qualitative researchers (e. Some common theoretical traditions present in the qualitative research literature are phenomenological, hermeneutical (including narrative research), discursive, ethnographic, and also grounded theory Buy now Concept Mapping Research Papers

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    According to hume (1974 1748), there are two primary ways to validate knowledge by logic, as in the relation of ideas (for example, in mathematics), and by experience, in the case of matters of fact. As a result of this growth, we have today a complex, diversified field influenced by a large number of schools, authors, and epistemological perspectives. In the first place, as i have already mentioned, nothing guarantees that discrete empirical data, even when collected in large amounts and under widely varying conditions, can support large-range theories on their own. It therefore seems risky to make assertions regarding qualitative methods (which are best given in the plural). It may be that the entire conceptual confusion surrounding theory building in qualitative research is rooted in this idea Concept Mapping Research Papers Buy now

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    I believe that the same problem occurs in other generic qualitative methods. He purports that if there is no logical support to infer a universal law from singular experience, there must be support for the opposite. One, which is of interest here, is the problem of how to explain the existence of two or more empirically successful theories explaining the same phenomenon. Another alternative in attempting to discover themes would be to analyze data according to an existing framework, that is, deductively. There is no observation without theory, since perception itself is influenced by expectations, previous experiences, and accumulated knowledge.

    However, by acting this way, the research in question runs the risk of being purely descriptive and its explanation just an abbreviation for situated empirical observations (rosenberg, 2000) Buy Concept Mapping Research Papers at a discount

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    It depends on the creativity of the researcher, on an intellectual act, a mental leap (reichertz, 2009, p. . This reorders the relationship among a number of key concepts it is phenomena that are immediately connected to theory, and not empirical data. Gtm rests in a state of permanent tension between 1. Second, i feel it is important to reiterate that discussion regarding the generic analytical cycle seeks to elucidate an apparently serious, and in my opinion underestimated, problem in qualitative research the use of qualitative analytical methods as devices.

    In the first place, as i have already mentioned, nothing guarantees that discrete empirical data, even when collected in large amounts and under widely varying conditions, can support large-range theories on their own Buy Online Concept Mapping Research Papers

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    In this article, i have suggested another possibility that phenomena are (scheibe, 2001), meaning that empirical observation should not be disregarded but rather repositioned in existing theoretical networks or in those still to be created. Identifying themes is the first transposition from the empirical to the theoretical, an initial inductive leap. Without this interplay, it would seem difficult to justify the scientific relevance of the qualitative procedure, which would be no more than just another way of cataloging and describing empirical facts without any connection with broader phenomena and theories. At the same time, this may mean that there is something more beyond my symbolic systems, causing them to be continuously subject to revision Buy Concept Mapping Research Papers Online at a discount

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    In such cases, reality is equated with the description we give to it (toomela, 2011). A hypothesis results from an exercise of intellect, creative capacity, and consideration of context, since available knowledge offers us concepts, ideas, relationships, etc. Abduction is known to be a logical, as well as rational and scientific, inference that enables the creation of new forms of knowledge (reichertz, 2009). Strauss, 1987). Popper was a critic of logical positivism, and introduced (1959) a second way of thinking about the theory-empirical data relationship.

    Therefore, the choice of which facets, properties, or qualities of a phenomenon will be considered depends on its integration into a theoretical web, in the holistic sense advocated by lakatos (1978), and especially by quine (1978, 1998) Concept Mapping Research Papers For Sale

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    It is, therefore, a two-handed process from description to explanation, always comparing cases and organizing them into increasingly central and abstract thematic categories. On the one hand we encounter definitions of phenomena as (brown, 1994), that is, something already given in nature that must be discovered by means of a scientific method (from the greek thing appearing to view). However, perhaps not even the interplay between small- or midrange theories that are generated inductively from a set of available empirical data and large-range (deductive) ones is able to rid qualitative methods of the induction problems discussed in this article. Data are evidence of phenomena, not of theory (bogan & woodward, 1988 hacking, 1983, 2002 woodward, 1989) For Sale Concept Mapping Research Papers

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    Therefore, i believe that a possible novelty in this discussion is that of problematizing the meaning of phenomena in qualitative research. Plots and graphs are a type of visual learning diagram that visually represents a relationship between sets of numbers as a set of points having coordinates determined by that relationship. Inductive thinking is problematic because we can never be certain that a recurring (known) event will continue to occur. Depending on its objectives with respect to empirical verification, qualitative research can be confirmatory or exploratory (guest et al. Currently, a specific version of this position, called critical realism, advocates the existence of an objective reality formed by events and their underlying causes, about the latter of which one can never acquire definitive knowledge Sale Concept Mapping Research Papers

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